Every hero has a set of visible and hidden stats. In order to better understand how one’s heroes will perform, I would like to know what each of those stats do. In particular:

How are the MOD stats related to the stats they supposedly modify? Are they multipliers out of 100 or 1000 or something? Or are they growth rates? When I look at the character’s normal stats, are the MOD stats already factored into them, or is that a raw value that is combined in some way with the MOD stat later?

With regard to both attack stats, it is unclear whether they are raw damage per hit or damage per second based on some raw damage mutiplied by fire rate? If it’s a rate, is reload time and ammo factored into it?

The crit stats appear to be half of the corresponding attack stat. Is this always true? It would make the most sense if a stat like that was just the damage added to base damage when a crit occurs. If so, then what determines the probability of a crit? Is it fixed for everyone the same? Fixed for each hero? Increase with level?

Defense stats obviously reduce incoming damage, but how effectively? Is it a flat reduction per hit (e.g. if my defense is greater than your per-bullet attack, you do no damage)? Or is the reduction proportional to incoming raw bullet damage (e.g. a defense of 100 will reduce damage by 10%)? If proportional, is it calculated as a flat factor (ee.g. It can reach 100% at some ludicrously high value) or is it tiered (e.g. first 100 defense are worth 10%, next 100 worth 9%, etc so that reaching 100% is not theoretically possible? Some other mechanism like a hyperbolic curve to keep it under 100%?

With regard to the elemental stats, the conditions where they would be used are very unclear. Is it a factor in every attack? Does it add to normal attack and defense, or does it multiply? Does elemental attack only affect hits with an element advantage, and elemental defense only an elemental disadvantage?

Finally, do attack stats influence skill damage? If the skill has a non-elemental damage, is the elemental attack and defense ignored? This would be very useful information because it would heavily influence the value of skill point investments.

Thanks!